Notebookcheck
, , , , , ,
zu verknüpfen.
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
 

PowerVR GXA6850

Die PowerVR GXA6850 von Imagination Technologies ist eine schnelle mobile Grafiklösung, die im ARM-SoC Apple A8X (iPad Air 2) zu finden ist. Die seit dem dritten Quartal 2014 verfügbare GPU zählt zum Zeitpunkt der Vorstellung zu den schnellsten Grafikchips im Tablet-Segment.

Architektur und Performance

Die aus der Series 6XT (Rogue) stammende GPU basiert auf einer skalaren Unified Shader Architektur und integriert insgesamt acht Cluster mit jeweils zwei TMUs und 32 FP32-ALUs. Da von IMG offiziell keine Grafikeinheit mit diesen Spezifikationen angeboten wird, scheint Apple die GX6450 (4 Cluster) des Smartphone-SoCs Apple A8 (iPhone 6iPhone 6 Plus) schlicht verdoppelt zu haben – man könnte demzufolge auch von einer GX6450MP2 sprechen. Anandtech hat alternativ dazu die Bezeichnung PowerVR GXA6850 eingeführt. Zusätzliche Performancesteigerungen resultieren aus der breiten 128-Bit-Speicheranbindung des A8X.

Im Falle des iPad Air 2 dürfte die GPU mit etwa 450 MHz takten (Schätzung), woraus sich eine Rechenleistung von rund 230 GFLOPS (FP32) errechnet. Im Vergleich mit anderen mobilen Grafiklösungen übertrifft die GXA6850 deutlich die Adreno 420 (Snapdragon 805) und kann sogar einen kleinen Vorsprung auf Nvidias Tegra K1 herausarbeiten. Ende 2014 zählt die Grafiklösung zu den schnellsten Tablet-GPUs auf dem Markt. Auch anspruchsvollste Spiele und hochauslösende Displays werden ohne Probleme bewältigt. Die GPU unterstützt unter anderem OpenGL 3.x/4.x, OpenGL ES 3.0 sowie DirectX 10.

Leistungsaufnahme

Dank der fortschrittlichen 20-Nanometer-Fertigung und relativ niedrigen Taktrate dürfte die GXA6850-Implementation des Apple A8X eine recht hohe Energieeffizienz aufweisen. Im Gegenzug benötigt die sehr breit ausgelegte GPU jedoch auch relativ viele Transistoren und damit eine große Chipfläche (rund 38 mm² in 20 nm).

HerstellerImagination
PowerVR Series 6XT (Rogue) Serie
PowerVR GXA6850 256 @ 0.45 GHz128 Bit
PowerVR GX6450 compare 128 @ 0.45 GHz64 Bit
PowerVR GX6250 compare 64 @ 0.7 GHz64 Bit
CodenameRogue
ArchitekturPowerVR Rogue
Pipelines256 - unified
Kerntakt450 (?) MHz
Speicherbandbreite128 Bit
Shared Memorynein
DirectXDirectX 10
Herstellungsprozess20 nm
FeaturesOpenGL 3.x, 4.x, OpenGL ES 3.0
Erscheinungsdatum09.09.2014
Herstellerseitehttp://www.imgtec.com/powervr/series6xt....

Benchmarks

GFXBench (DX / GLBenchmark) 2.7
GFXBench 2.7 T-Rex HD Onscreen C24Z16 +
GFXBench T-Rex HD Offscreen C24Z16 +
- Bereich der Benchmarkergebnisse für diese Grafikkarte
- Durchschnittliche Benchmarkergebnisse für diese Grafikkarte
* Smaller numbers mean a higher performance

Eine Liste mit weiteren Spielen und allen Grafikkarten finden Sie auf unserer Seite: Welches Spiel ist mit welcher Grafikkarte spielbar?

Ein oder mehrere Geräte zum Vergleich auswählen

In der folgenden Liste können sie Geräte suchen und für einen Vergleich auswählen.

Liste einschränken:

show all (including archived), 2022, 2021
v1.17
log 26. 13:39:28

#0 no ids found in url (should be separated by "_") +0s ... 0s

#1 not redirecting to Ajax server +0s ... 0s

#2 did not recreate cache, as it is less than 5 days old! Created at Wed, 26 Jan 2022 12:30:28 +0100 +0s ... 0s

#3 composed specs +0.078s ... 0.078s

#4 did output specs +0s ... 0.078s

#5 start showIntegratedCPUs +0s ... 0.078s

#6 getting avg benchmarks for device 5987 +0.014s ... 0.093s

#7 got single benchmarks 5987 +0.007s ... 0.099s

#8 got avg benchmarks for devices +0s ... 0.099s

#9 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.021s ... 0.12s

#10 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.004s ... 0.124s

#11 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.124s

#12 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.124s

#13 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.124s

#14 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.124s

#15 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.124s

#16 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.124s

#17 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.007s ... 0.131s

#18 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.131s

#19 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.131s

#20 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.006s ... 0.137s

#21 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.003s ... 0.14s

#22 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#23 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#24 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#25 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#26 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#27 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#28 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#29 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.14s

#30 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.003s ... 0.143s

#31 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.004s ... 0.147s

#32 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.147s

#33 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.147s

#34 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.147s

#35 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.006s ... 0.153s

#36 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.004s ... 0.157s

#37 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.157s

#38 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.157s

#39 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.157s

#40 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.157s

#41 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.157s

#42 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.157s

#43 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.006s ... 0.163s

#44 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.163s

#45 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.163s

#46 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.163s

#47 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.163s

#48 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.163s

#49 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.163s

#50 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.163s

#51 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.006s ... 0.169s

#52 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.004s ... 0.172s

#53 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.172s

#54 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.172s

#55 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.172s

#56 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.172s

#57 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.172s

#58 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.172s

#59 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.172s

#60 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.006s ... 0.178s

#61 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#62 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#63 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#64 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#65 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#66 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#67 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#68 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.178s

#69 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.003s ... 0.181s

#70 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.182s

#71 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.184s

#72 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.184s

#73 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.184s

#74 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.184s

#75 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.185s

#76 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.186s

#77 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.186s

#78 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.002s ... 0.188s

#79 linkCache_getLink no uid found +0s ... 0.188s

#80 linkCache_getLink no uid found +0s ... 0.188s

#81 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.189s

#82 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.189s

#83 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.19s

#84 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.191s

#85 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.192s

#86 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.192s

#87 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.192s

#88 linkCache_getLink no uid found +0.002s ... 0.194s

#89 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.194s

#90 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.195s

#91 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.195s

#92 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.195s

#93 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.195s

#94 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.002s ... 0.197s

#95 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.197s

#96 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.197s

#97 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.197s

#98 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.197s

#99 linkCache_getLink no uid found +0.002s ... 0.199s

#100 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.199s

#101 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.201s

#102 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.201s

#103 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.201s

#104 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.201s

#105 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.201s

#106 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.201s

#107 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.201s

#108 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.201s

#109 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.201s

#110 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.203s

#111 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.203s

#112 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.203s

#113 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.203s

#114 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.204s

#115 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.204s

#116 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.002s ... 0.206s

#117 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.206s

#118 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.206s

#119 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.206s

#120 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.002s ... 0.208s

#121 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.208s

#122 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.208s

#123 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.208s

#124 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.209s

#125 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.21s

#126 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.211s

#127 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#128 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#129 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#130 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#131 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#132 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#133 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#134 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.211s

#135 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.002s ... 0.213s

#136 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#137 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#138 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#139 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#140 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#141 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#142 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#143 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.213s

#144 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.214s

#145 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.215s

#146 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.216s

#147 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#148 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#149 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#150 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#151 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#152 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#153 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#154 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.216s

#155 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.217s

#156 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.218s

#157 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#158 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#159 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#160 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#161 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#162 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#163 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#164 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.218s

#165 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.219s

#166 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.221s

#167 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#168 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#169 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#170 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#171 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#172 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#173 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#174 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.221s

#175 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.221s

#176 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.223s

#177 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#178 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#179 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#180 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#181 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#182 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#183 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#184 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.223s

#185 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.224s

#186 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.224s

#187 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.225s

#188 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.226s

#189 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.226s

#190 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.226s

#191 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.226s

#192 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.226s

#193 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.226s

#194 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.227s

#195 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.227s

#196 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.227s

#197 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.227s

#198 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.228s

#199 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.229s

#200 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.229s

#201 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.229s

#202 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.229s

#203 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.229s

#204 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.229s

#205 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.229s

#206 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.229s

#207 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.23s

#208 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.23s

#209 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.23s

#210 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.23s

#211 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.23s

#212 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.231s

#213 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.232s

#214 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.233s

#215 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.002s ... 0.235s

#216 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.235s

#217 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.002s ... 0.236s

#218 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.237s

#219 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.238s

#220 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.238s

#221 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.238s

#222 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.238s

#223 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0.001s ... 0.239s

#224 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.239s

#225 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.239s

#226 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.239s

#227 linkCache_getLink using $NBC_LINKCACHE +0s ... 0.24s

#228 min, max, avg, median took s +0.001s ... 0.24s

#229 before gaming benchmark output +0s ... 0.24s

#230 Got 0 rows for game benchmarks. +0.002s ... 0.242s

#231 return log +0.003s ... 0.246s

Notebooktests mit PowerVR GXA6850 Grafikkarte

Apple iPad Air 2: Apple A8X, 9.70", 0.4 kg
  Test » Erster Eindruck: Apple iPad Air 2 Tablet im Test

  Test » Test Apple iPad Air 2 (A1567 / 128 GB / LTE) Tablet

  Externer Test » Apple iPad Air 2

Teilen Sie diesen Artikel um uns zu unterstützen. Jeder Link hilft!

» Vergleich mobiler Grafikkarten
Liste aller mobiler Grafikkarten mit Kurzinformationen sortiert nach Leistung

» Mobile Grafikkarten - Benchmarkliste
Sortier- und filterbare Benchmark-Liste

» Spieleliste
Welche Spiele laufen mit welcher Grafikkarte

Leistungsklasse 3

UHD Graphics 770

Leistungsklasse 4

Leistungsklasse 5

Leistungsklasse 6

* Geschätzte Position

> Notebook Test, Laptop Test und News > Benchmarks / Technik > Benchmarks / Technik > Vergleich mobiler Grafikkarten > Imagination PowerVR GXA6850
Autor: Klaus Hinum (Update: 15.05.2018)